Embellishments of John
Embellishments of John

Embellishments of John

1. Seven (7) titles given in the second half of Chapter 1

The fourth Gospel is designed to introduce who Jesus in the first chapter. In the latter half of the 1st chapter (v. 29-51), titles are assigned will be utilized and reinforced throughout the book. The author narrates key characters to introduce these titles. However, in the Synoptics, these titles are not assigned by Jesus’s followers at the onset of his ministry.

 

  1. The Lamb of God (John 1:29, John 1:35)
  2. Son of God, (John 1:34, John 1:49)
  3. Rabbi (John 1:38, John 1:49)
  4. Christ / Messiah (John 1:41)
  5. Jesus of Nazareth (John 1:45)
  6. King of Israel (John 1:49)
  7. Son of Man, (John 1:51)
What occurs in John 1 is inconsistent with the Gospels. In Luke, the Baptist is unsure about Jesus later into his ministry (Luke 7:18-23). None of the the Synoptics attest to John the Baptist identifying Jesus the “Lamb of God” or “the Son of God.” In Luke, Peter identifies Jesus as the Christ later in the ministry when Jesus asks his disciples, “Who do you say that I am?” (Luke 9:20)
 

John 1:29-51 (ESV)

29 The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! 30 This is he of whom I said, ‘After me comes a man who ranks before me, because he was before me.’ 31 I myself did not know him, but for this purpose I came baptizing with water, that he might be revealed to Israel.” 32 And John bore witness: “I saw the Spirit descend from heaven like a dove, and it remained on him. 33 I myself did not know him, but he who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘He on whom you see the Spirit descend and remain, this is he who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.’ 34 And I have seen and have borne witness that this is the Son of God.”
35 The next day again John was standing with two of his disciples, 36 and he looked at Jesus as he walked by and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God!” 37 The two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus. 38 Jesus turned and saw them following and said to them, “What are you seeking?” And they said to him, “Rabbi” (which means Teacher), “where are you staying?” 39 He said to them, “Come and you will see.” So they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day, for it was about the tenth hour. 40 One of the two who heard John speak and followed Jesus was Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother. 41 He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which means Christ). 42 He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John. You shall be called Cephas” (which means Peter). 43 The next day Jesus decided to go to Galilee. He found Philip and said to him, “Follow me.” 44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, “We have found him of whom Moses in the Law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” 46 Nathanael said to him, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” Philip said to him, “Come and see.” 47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and said of him, “Behold, an Israelite indeed, in whom there is no deceit!” 48 Nathanael said to him, “How do you know me?” Jesus answered him, “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.” 49 Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God! You are the King of Israel!” 50 Jesus answered him, “Because I said to you, ‘I saw you under the fig tree,’ do you believe? You will see greater things than these.” 51 And he said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”

 Luke 7:18-23 (ESV) 

18 The disciples of John reported all these things to him. And John, 19 calling two of his disciples to him, sent them to the Lord, saying, “Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another?” 20 And when the men had come to him, they said, “John the Baptist has sent us to you, saying, ‘Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another?’” 21 In that hour he healed many people of diseases and plagues and evil spirits, and on many who were blind he bestowed sight. 22 And he answered them, “Go and tell John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have good news preached to them. 23 And blessed is the one who is not offended by me.”

Luke 9:18-20 (ESV)

18 Now it happened that as he was praying alone, the disciples were with him. And he asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?” 19 And they answered, “John the Baptist. But others say, Elijah, and others, that one of the prophets of old has risen.” 20 Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered, “The Christ of God.”

2. Seven (7) “I am” Statements of John

According to the Fourth Gospel, Jesus made seven (7) specific “I am” statements and said “I am” seven (7) times in a non-specific way. In account of the seven (7) titles given in the first chapter, the two 7-day weeks in the beginning and end of John, the seven (7) signs (miracles) that are presented in John, and the 7 + 7 “I am” statements, it is apparent that the author had a love for sevens (7s). In the Synoptics Jesus’ principal theme is the Kingdom of God and he rarely speaks of himself, whereas in John the discourses are largely vehicles for expressing Jesus’ self-consciousness and self-proclamation. As the scholar James Dunn has said, “Had the striking ‘ I am’ self-assertions of John been remembered as spoken by Jesus, how could any evangelists have ignored them so completely as the gospels do?” (James D. G. Dunn, Jesus Remembered, Christianity in the Making, Volume 1, P. 165) It is most reasonable to presume that had Jesus actually uttered these statements in a public way, the the proceeding Gospels would have certainly attested to it, as they are such strong statements that would attest to Jesus’ identification of himself and his significance as God’s provision for our salvation. Yet, Jesus typical way of identifying himself in the Gospels is “the Son of Man” while keeping his identity as Christ concealed. 

Seven (7) Specific I am statements:

  1. “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me shall not hunger, and whoever believes in me shall never thirst” (John 6:35)
  2. “I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will not walk in darkness, but will have the light of life.” (John 8:12)
  3. “I am the door of the sheep. All who came before me are thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not listen to them.  I am the door. If anyone enters by me, he will be saved and will go in and out and find pasture. The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life and have it abundantly.” (John 10:7-10)
  4. “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep.” (John 10:11)
  5. “I am the ressurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live,  and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die.” (John 11:25-26)
  6. “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6)
  7. “I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser. Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he takes away, and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. (John 15:1-2)

Seven (7) occurrences of non-specific “I am” statements: John 4:26, John 6:20, John 8:24, John 8:28, John 8:58, John 13:19, John 18:

3. Proclamations that Jesus is Messiah and that he will be crucified and raised

In the synoptic Gospels, Jesus identity of the Messiah is kept secret during his ministry and he only discloses his fate to be killed and be resurrected to his closest disciples. In the Fourth Gospel, Jesus is announced as the Messiah at the very onset of his ministry (John 1:41) and publicly makes prophetic proclamations about his resurrection as early as Chapter 2 (John 2:19-21). Here there is a striking inconsistency between John and the Synoptic Gospels as exemplified by Luke. 

Luke 9:18-20 (ESV), Keeping things a secret to the crowds 

18 Now it happened that as he was praying alone, the disciples were with him. And he asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?” 19 And they answered, “John the Baptist. But others say, Elijah, and others, that one of the prophets of old has risen.” 20 Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered, “The Christ of God.” 21 And he strictly charged and commanded them to tell this to no one, 22 saying, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised.”

John 1:41-42 (ESV), Jesus identified as Messiah (Christ) in Chapter 1

41 He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, “We have found the Messiah” (which means Christ). 42 He brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon the son of John. You shall be called Cephas” (which means Peter).

John 2:18-22 (ESV), Jesus prophesied to the Jews of his Resurrection in Chapter 2

18 So the Jews said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?” 19 Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” 20 The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” 21 But he was speaking about the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.

John 3:13-15 (ESV), So must the Son of Man be lifted up

  13 No one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man. 14 And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 15 that whoever believes in him may have eternal life.

John 4:25-26 (ESV), Jesus identifies himself as Messiah to the woman at the well

  25 The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming (he who is called Christ). When he comes, he will tell us all things.” 26 Jesus said to her, “I who speak to you am he.”

John 8:21-29 (ESV), Jesus speaks of his resurrection and going to the Father

21 So he said to them again, “I am going away, and you will seek me, and you will die in your sin. Where I am going, you cannot come.” 22 So the Jews said, “Will he kill himself, since he says, ‘Where I am going, you cannot come’?” 23 He said to them, “You are from below; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world. 24 I told you that you would die in your sins, for unless you believe that I am he you will die in your sins.” 25 So they said to him, “Who are you?” Jesus said to them, “Just what I have been telling you from the beginning. 26 I have much to say about you and much to judge, but he who sent me is true, and I declare to the world what I have heard from him.” 27 They did not understand that he had been speaking to them about the Father. 28 So Jesus said to them, “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am he, and that I do nothing on my own authority, but speak just as the Father taught me. 29 And he who sent me is with me.

John 12:27-35 (ESV), He said this to show by what kind of death he was going to die

27Now is my soul troubled. And what shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this hour’? But for this purpose I have come to this hour. 28 Father, glorify your name.” Then a voice came from heaven: “I have glorified it, and I will glorify it again.” 29 The crowd that stood there and heard it said that it had thundered. Others said, “An angel has spoken to him.” 30 Jesus answered, “This voice has come for your sake, not mine. 31 Now is the judgment of this world; now will the ruler of this world be cast out. 32 And I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all people to myself.33 He said this to show by what kind of death he was going to die. 34 So the crowd answered him, “We have heard from the Law that the Christ remains forever. How can you say that the Son of Man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of Man?” 35 So Jesus said to them, “The light is among you for a little while longer.

 

4. After the feeding of 5000, who did the crowds think Jesus was?

According to John 6:15, the crowds were about to come and take Jesus by force to make him king. This is inconsistent with what Jesus asked his disciples after the event, “Who do the crowds say that I am?” (Luke 9:18-21) 

John 6:15 (ESV)

15 Perceiving then that they were about to come and take him by force to make him king, Jesus withdrew again to the mountain by himself.

Luke 9:18-27 (ESV)

18 Now it happened that as he was praying alone, the disciples were with him. And he asked them, “Who do the crowds say that I am?” 19 And they answered, “John the Baptist. But others say, Elijah, and others, that one of the prophets of old has risen.” 20 Then he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” And Peter answered, “The Christ of God.” 21 And he strictly charged and commanded them to tell this to no one, 22 saying, “The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third day be raised.”

5. Cleansing of the Temple

The account of cleansing the temple in John embellished in the following ways with respect to the Synoptics:

  1. In John, Jesus cleanses the temple early in his ministry and it is not the greatest controversy and cause for his arrest as attested by the Synoptics.
  2. In John, Jesus interrupts the Passover buying and selling related to the Passover (John 2:13)
  3. In John, Jesus is said to have made a  “whip of cords” and to have drove people out “with sheep and oxen” (John 2:14) This is not attested in the Synoptics.
  4. In John, Jesus prophecies about his death and resurrection as a sign. (John 2:18-22) In the Synoptics, Jesus continues to teach in the temple after the event with no mention of a prophecy about raising up the temple in three days after destroying it (Luke 19:17-48)

John 2:13-22 (ESV)

13 The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 14 In the temple he found those who were selling oxen and sheep and pigeons, and the money-changers sitting there. 15 And making a whip of cords, he drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and oxen. And he poured out the coins of the money-changers and overturned their tables. 16 And he told those who sold the pigeons, “Take these things away; do not make my Father’s house a house of trade.” 17 His disciples remembered that it was written, “Zeal for your house will consume me.” 18 So the Jews said to him, “What sign do you show us for doing these things?” 19 Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” 20 The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” 21 But he was speaking about the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the Scripture and the word that Jesus had spoken.

Luke 19:45 – 19:48 (ESV) 

45 And he entered the temple and began to drive out those who sold, 46 saying to them, “It is written, ‘My house shall be a house of prayer,’ but you have made it a den of robbers.” 47 And he was teaching daily in the temple. The chief priests and the scribes and the principal men of the people were seeking to destroy him, 48 but they did not find anything they could do, for all the people were hanging on his words.

6. Raising of Lazarus

The raising of Lazarus in Chapter 18 and 19 of John is the climax of Jesus ministry and pivotal to the narrative of John and the symbolism conveyed therethrough. However this is not attested by any of the Synoptic Gospels. Considering the significance that the author of John assigns to it the Lazarus story, it appears that the story, the symbolism and the parallels it draws are of numerous embellishments:

  1. Jesus raises from the dead his beloved disciple, the brother of Mary (who anointed Jesus) and Martha who Jesus also loved, (John 11:5). This is according to an elaborate set of events
  2. Jesus knows Lazarus is ill and engages in a plot to let him die, so that a greater sign can be demonstrated through the situation, (John 11:4, 13-15)
  3. Jesus knew he is subjecting himself to danger by going to Judea after the Jews wanted to stone him, (John:7-8)
  4. Jesus uses the situation to make a declaration about himself, “I am the resurrection and the life” (John:25-26)
  5. Lazarus was in the tomb for four days (simular period that Jesus was dead), (John 11:17, 39)
  6. Lazarus was wrapped in a burial shroud and was sealed in a tomb (simular to Jesus), (John 11:38, 44)
  7. The raising of Lazarus sets in motion the plot to arrest Jesus. (John 11:45-57) – This is opposed to the cleansing of the temple as presented in the Synoptic Gospels. 
  8. The Jews also want to kill Lazarus (John 12:9-11)
  9. The crowds gathered at the triumphal entry on account of the raising of Lazarus (John 12:17-18)
  10. Lazarus and Jesus are meant to die so that God may be glorified (both are signs), (John 11:4)

7. The anointing of Jesus by a woman

According to two of the synoptics Gospels an unnamed woman anoints Jesus by pouring ointment on his head. In John, the woman is identified as Mary (having a special association as Lazarus’ sister). What is telling that this is the same occasion is the reference to the value being three hundred denarii and the suggestion by that it was being wasted and could have been given to the poor.  Jesus words “For the poor you always have with you, but you don not always have me” (John 12:8) matches closely with Mark (14:7) and Matthew (26:11). John adds the claim, “she has anointed by body beforehand for burial.” In John, Judas is identified as the complainer. In Mark and Matthew: his disciples
 

Embellishments include:

  1. In John, It is Mary (the sister of Lazarus) that anoints Jesus
  2. In John, it is Judas that complains (not unnamed disciples) 
  3. In John, Jesus makes reference to leaving her alone that she may keep the ointment for the day of his burial 

John 12:2-8 (ESV)

2 So they gave a dinner for him there. Martha served, and Lazarus was one of those reclining with him at table. 3 Mary therefore took a pound of expensive ointment made from pure nard, and anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped his feet with her hair. The house was filled with the fragrance of the perfume. 4 But Judas Iscariot, one of his disciples (he who was about to betray him), said, 5 “Why was this ointment not sold for three hundred denarii and given to the poor?” 6 He said this, not because he cared about the poor, but because he was a thief, and having charge of the moneybag he used to help himself to what was put into it. 7 Jesus said, “Leave her alone, so that she may keep it for the day of my burial. 8 For the poor you always have with you, but you do not always have me.”

Mark 14:3-9 (ESV)

3 And while he was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, as he was reclining at table, a woman came with an alabaster flask of ointment of pure nard, very costly, and she broke the flask and poured it over his head. 4 There were some who said to themselves indignantly, “Why was the ointment wasted like that? 5 For this ointment could have been sold for more than three hundred denarii and given to the poor.” And they scolded her. 6 But Jesus said, “Leave her alone. Why do you trouble her? She has done a beautiful thing to me. 7 For you always have the poor with you, and whenever you want, you can do good for them. But you will not always have me. 8 She has done what she could; she has anointed my body beforehand for burial. 9 And truly, I say to you, wherever the gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will be told in memory of her.”

 

8. The betrayal and arrest of Jesus

In john Jesus identifies himself in dramatic fashion as opposed to Judas identifying Jesus as in the Synoptics. According to John Jesus identifies himself saying “I am” with those enquiring drawing back and falling on the ground.  In John, Peter is identified as the one who cuts off the ear of the servant whereas the Synoptics don’t identify the one who drew his sword.  

John 18:1-12 (ESV)

1 When Jesus had spoken these words, he went out with his disciples across the brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which he and his disciples entered. 2 Now Judas, who betrayed him, also knew the place, for Jesus often met there with his disciples. 3 So Judas, having procured a band of soldiers and some officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, went there with lanterns and torches and weapons. 4 Then Jesus, knowing all that would happen to him, came forward and said to them, “Whom do you seek?” 5 They answered him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jesus said to them, “I am he.” Judas, who betrayed him, was standing with them. 6 When Jesus said to them, “I am he,” they drew back and fell to the ground. 7 So he asked them again, “Whom do you seek?” And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” 8 Jesus answered, “I told you that I am he. So, if you seek me, let these men go.” 9 This was to fulfill the word that he had spoken: “Of those whom you gave me I have lost not one.” 10 Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear. (The servant’s name was Malchus.) 11 So Jesus said to Peter, “Put your sword into its sheath; shall I not drink the cup that the Father has given me?” 12 So the band of soldiers and their captain and the officers of the Jews arrested Jesus and bound him.

9. Jesus before Pilate

According to the synoptic gospels, after Jesus is questioned by Pilate if he is king of the Jews, Jesus gives no further response to Pilates questioning (Matt 27:14, Mark 15:5). John is embellished to give Jesus more length dialogue and to testify regarding himself during the questioning including the words, “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.” (John 18:36) and, “You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world—to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.” (John 18:37)

John 18:33-38 (ESV)

33 So Pilate entered his headquarters again and called Jesus and said to him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” 34 Jesus answered, “Do you say this of your own accord, or did others say it to you about me?” 35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered you over to me. What have you done?” 36 Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, my servants would have been fighting, that I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.” 37 Then Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, “You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world—to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.” 38 Pilate said to him, “What is truth?” After he had said this, he went back outside to the Jews and told them, “I find no guilt in him.

10. Jesus back before Pilate

In the Synoptics, including Luke 23:16, Matthew 27:27-31 and Mark 15:16-20,  Jesus is not yet punished before appearing before Pilate a second time. According to John Jesus has been flogged, and the soldiers had twisted together a crown of thorns and put it in his head and arrayed him in a purple robe as he is presented before the Jews. John also adds dialogue between Jesus and Pilot and between the Jews and Pilot that are not attested by the Synoptic Gospels. 

John 18:39 – 19:16 (ESV)

39 But you have a custom that I should release one man for you at the Passover. So do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” 40 They cried out again, “Not this man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.

1 Then Pilate took Jesus and flogged him. 2 And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head and arrayed him in a purple robe. 3 They came up to him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!” and struck him with their hands. 4 Pilate went out again and said to them, “See, I am bringing him out to you that you may know that I find no guilt in him.” 5 So Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, “Behold the man!” 6 When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, “Crucify him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and crucify him, for I find no guilt in him.” 7 The Jews answered him, “We have a law, and according to that law he ought to die because he has made himself the Son of God.” 8 When Pilate heard this statement, he was even more afraid. 9 He entered his headquarters again and said to Jesus, “Where are you from?” But Jesus gave him no answer. 10 So Pilate said to him, “You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?” 11 Jesus answered him, “You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above. Therefore he who delivered me over to you has the greater sin.”
12 From then on Pilate sought to release him, but the Jews cried out, “If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s friend. Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.” 13 So when Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on the judgment seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Aramaic Gabbatha. 14 Now it was the day of Preparation of the Passover. It was about the sixth hour. He said to the Jews, “Behold your King!” 15 They cried out, “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.” 16 So he delivered him over to them to be crucified.

11. The crucifixion of Jesus

The Crucification account, according to the Fourth Gospel is much more embellished than the Synoptics. Here is a list of embellishments:

  1. In John,  Jesus bared his own cross while the synoptic Gospels Jesus is assisted by Simon of Cyrene.
  2. In John, inscription is claimed to have read “Jesus of Nazareth” in addition to “King of the Jews” as attested by the synoptic Gospels.
  3. In John, the inscription is claimed to have been translated in three different languages including Aramaic, Latin, and Greek.
  4. In John, Jesus speaks to his mother when on the cross and tell his disciple that she is his mother. 
  5. In John, Jesus last words are “It is finished” – not attested by any of the Synoptic Gospels. 
  6. In John, the soldiers seek to break Jesus legs for him to die a quicker death but, already seeing that he was dead, one of the solders “pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water.” (John 19:34) These claims, exclusive to John, are conflated with two bible prophecies. 

John 19:17-37 (ESV)

17 and he went out, bearing his own cross, to the place called The Place of a Skull, which in Aramaic is called Golgotha. 18 There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus between them. 19 Pilate also wrote an inscription and put it on the cross. It read, “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews.” 20 Many of the Jews read this inscription, for the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it was written in Aramaic, in Latin, and in Greek. 21 So the chief priests of the Jews said to Pilate, “Do not write, ‘The King of the Jews,’ but rather, ‘This man said, I am King of the Jews.’” 22 Pilate answered, “What I have written I have written.” 23 When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his garments and divided them into four parts, one part for each soldier; also his tunic. But the tunic was seamless, woven in one piece from top to bottom, 24 so they said to one another, “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it to see whose it shall be.” This was to fulfill the Scripture which says, “They divided my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots.” So the soldiers did these things, 25 but standing by the cross of Jesus were his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 26 When Jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing nearby, he said to his mother, “Woman, behold, your son!27 Then he said to the disciple, “Behold, your mother!” And from that hour the disciple took her to his own home. 28 After this, Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), “I thirst.” 29 A jar full of sour wine stood there, so they put a sponge full of the sour wine on a hyssop branch and held it to his mouth. 30 When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, “It is finished,” and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit. 31 Since it was the day of Preparation, and so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken and that they might be taken away. 32 So the soldiers came and broke the legs of the first, and of the other who had been crucified with him. 33 But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. 34 But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. 35 He who saw it has borne witness—his testimony is true, and he knows that he is telling the truth—that you also may believe. 36 For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken.37 And again another Scripture says, “They will look on him whom they have pierced.

12. The burial of Jesus

In the Synoptic Gospels there is no mention of Jesus being prepared with spices in addition to the linen shroud. The account in John includes a claim that “Nicodemus also, who earlier had come to Jesus by night, came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds in weight. So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews.” (John 19:39-40) In John, even Nicodemus is made a witness in affirmation of Jesus. 

John 19:38-42 (ESV)

38 After these things Joseph of Arimathea, who was a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus, and Pilate gave him permission. So he came and took away his body. 39 Nicodemus also, who earlier had come to Jesus by night, came bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about seventy-five pounds in weight. 40 So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in linen cloths with the spices, as is the burial custom of the Jews. 41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb in which no one had yet been laid. 42 So because of the Jewish day of Preparation, since the tomb was close at hand, they laid Jesus there.